At a mass protest meeting, Gandhi and his followers resolve to use “passive resistance” to protest a Transvaal Government Ordinance that compels Indians to obtain “passes” – the beginnings of apartheid. “Passive Resistance” is later replaced by “Satyagraha,” or the ‘force of truth’. A moral and political philosophy, Satyagraha rests on the practice of non-violence, insistence on truth and willingness for self-sacrifice. It differs from previous forms of non-violent struggle by promoting love for the opponent as a central tenet. Famously, Gandhi takes his vow of lifelong celibacy at this time, which he credits with helping him to develop the philosophy of Satyagraha.